Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide

Here is a comprehensive and basic emergency first aid treatment guide for casualties of all ages in any emergency.

The recognition signs, precautions and emergency actions to take whenever an adult, child or baby is in an emergency situation are well highlighted.

What is First Aid?

Wikipedia defined First aid as the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery.

Quick Reference Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide

Every step-by-step emergency First Aid procedure is clearly illustrated with text completely revised, updated, and expanded, with detailed anatomical information.

These Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide will cover the following health issues.

Contents

  • Asthma Attack
  • Choking: Adult, Child and Baby
  • Heart Attack
  • Severe Bleeding
  • Shock
  • Eye Injury
  • Unconsciousness
  • Head Injury
  • Convulsions: Adult
  • Convulsions: Child
  • Broken Bones
  • Back Injury
  • Burns: Treatment
  • Burns: Action and Safety
  • Swallowed Poisons
  • Allergic Reactions

 

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Heart Attack

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide

When ever one has a heart attack, what are the heart attack emergency first aid actions to take? Heart diseases are very common in our present world, yet a lot of people don’t know about this until when symptoms are obvious or when heart attack occurs.

What then is a Heart Attack?

NIH has it that a heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction (MI), happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart can’t get oxygen. If blood flow isn’t restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die.

A  myocardial infarction (MI) is a permanent damage to the heart muscle. “Myo” means muscle, “cardial” refers to the heart, and “infarction” means death of tissue due to lack of blood supply.

Recognition and Symtoms of Heart Attack

There may be:

  • Vice-like chest pain, spreading to left arm.
  • Breathlessness
  • Discomfort, like indigestion
  • Sudden faintness
  • A sense of impending doom
  • Ashen skin
  • Blueness at lips
  • A rapid, then weakening, pulse

Sudden collapse.

Precautions to Take During a Heart Attack

  • Do not give any fluids.

If the casualty becomes unconscious, be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

Emergency First Aid Actions During Heart Attack

A heart attack requires that emergency actions be taken to save the patient’s life. Here are 4 basic heart attack emergency first aid treatment.

  • Make casualty comfortable
  • Call ambulance
  • Monitor breathing and pulse
  • Give casualty aspirin.
  1. Make Casualty Comfortable
  • Help the casualty into a half-sitting position.
  • Support his head, shoulders, and knees.
  • If the casualty has tablets or a puffer aerosol for angina, let him administer it himself. Help him if necessary.
  • Reassure casualty.
  1. Dial 999 For Ambulance
  • Tell the controller that you suspect a heart attack.
  • Call the casualty’s doctor also, if he asks you to do so.
  1. Monitor Breathing and Pulse
  • Encourage the casualty to rest and keep any bystanders at a distance.
  • Monitor and record the casualty’s breathing and pulse constantly.
  • Give artificial respiration if required
  • Give Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) if pulse is not detected
  1. Give Casualty Aspirin
  • Give the casualty one tablet of aspirin, if available.
  • Tell him to chew it slowly.

My Advice: Make sure you see your Doctor if you have symptoms such as chest pain and others indicated in this post more frequently

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Severe Bleeding

severe bleeding emergency first aid treatment

Bleeding can occur anytime, mainly when there is a cut in the body; severe bleeding emergency first aid treatment is needed in such a time. The actions to be taken in order to control bleeding are quite simple.

What is Bleeding?

Bleeding, also be referred to as haemorrhaging, is a situation where blood escapes from the circulatory system. Wikipedia has it that bleeding can occur internally or externally.

Where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, bleeding is internal. Where blood flows through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina, anus or through a break in the skin, bleeding is external.

What is Severe Bleeding?

Bleeding must be controlled quickly because the person may lose a lot of blood, become unresponsive or develop shock. Severe bleeding is a life-threatening condition, often caused by excessive loss of blood; it is a massive decrease in blood volume.

Precautions to take During Severe Bleeding Treatment

  • Do not apply a tourniquet.
  • If there is an embedded object in the wound, apply pressure on either side of the wound, and pad around it before bandaging.
  • If possible, wear gloves to protect against infection.
  • It the casualty becomes unconscious, place her in the recovery position, and be ready to resuscitate if needed.

Actions to take During Severe Bleeding Emergency First Aid Treatment

  • Apply pressure to wound
  • Raise and support injured part
  • Bandage wound
  • Call ambulance
  • Treat for shock and monitor casualty

Severe Bleeding Emergency First Aid Treatment

When some one is severely bleeding, the following emergency actions must be taken to control or stop the severe bleeding.

  1. Apply Pressure To Wound
  • Remove or cut the casualty’s clothing to expose wound.
  • If a sterile dressing or pad is immediately available, cover the wound.
  • Apply direct pressure over the wound with your fingers or palm of your hand.
  1. Raise and Support Injured Part
  • Make sure the injured part is raised above the level of the casualty’s heart.
  • Lay the casualty down.
  • Handle the injured part gently if you suspect the injury involves a fracture.
  1. Bandage Wound
  • Apply a sterile dressing over any original pad, and bandage firmly in a place.
  • Bandage another pad on top if blood seeps through.
  • Check the circulation beyond the bandage at intervals; loosen it if needed.
  1. Dial 999 For Ambulance
  • Give details of the site of the injury and the extent of the bleeding when you telephone.
  1. Treat For Shock and Monitor Casualty
  • Treat for shock.
  • Monitor and record breathing, pulse, and level of response.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Shock

Shock can occur in matter of seconds and can result in death or tissue damage. Therefore, a shock emergency first aid treatment is necessary to avoid life threatening complications.

What is Shock?

Shock is a life threatening medical condition as a result of insufficient blood flow throughout the body. Shock often accompanies severe injury or illness. Casualties in this condition require shock emergency first aid treatment as symptoms can worsen rapidly.

Causes of Shock

  • Heart conditions (heart attack, heart failure)
  • Heavy internal or external bleeding from a serious injury or ruptured blood vessel
  • Severe dehydration
  • Infection(septic shock)
  • Severe allergic reaction(anaphylactic shock)
  • Spinal injuries(neurogenic shock)
  • Burns
  • Persistent vomiting or diarrhea

Recognition of Shock Symptoms

Here are the symptoms to look out for to know if an individual is in Shock.

  • A rapid pulse
  • Grey-blue skin, especially on lips.
  • Sweating and cold, clammy skin.

Later:

  • Weakness and giddiness
  • Nausea or thirst
  • Rapid, shallow breathing
  • A weak pulse

Eventually:     

  • Restlessness
  • Gasping for air
  • Unconsciousness
  • Cardiac arrest.

Precautions to take During Shock Emergency First Aid Treatment

Here are the precautions to take when a person is in shock;

  • Do not leave the casualty alone, except to call an ambulance.
  • Do not let the casualty eat, move, smoke, or drink.

Actions to take During Shock Emergency First Aid Treatment

When a person is in shock, here are the measures to effect for the patient’s speedy recovery;

  • Lay casualty down
  • Loosen tight clothing
  • Call ambulance
  • Monitor breathing and pulse
  1. Lay Casualty Down
  • Use a blanket to protect him from the cold ground.
  • Raise and support his legs as high as possible.
  • Treat any cause of shock, such as bleeding.
  1. Loosen Tight Clothing
  • Undo anything that constricts his neck, chest, and waist.
  1. Dial 999 For Ambulance
  • Give details of the cause of shock, if known.
  1. Monitor Breathing and Pulse
  • Monitor and record breathing, pulse, and level of response every ten minutes.
  • Be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

Just following the above guidelines and taking the necessary precautions , shock emergency first aid treatment can be given successfully to a casualty thereby preventing any loss of life or further damages.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Chocking

Choking occurs when a foreign object becomes lodged in the throat or windpipe, blocking the flow of air. In adults, a piece of food often is the culprit. Young children often swallow small objects. Because choking cuts off oxygen to the brain, administer first aid as quickly as possible.

If choking is occurring, the British Red Cross recommends a “five-and-five” approach to delivering first aid:

Choking (Adult)

Recognition and Symptoms of a Choking Adult

The main symptom of choking is difficulty in speaking and breathing. There may be:Congested face and neck initially as well as distress.

Later:

Grey-blue skin

Precautions to Take During a Choke

If the casualty becomes unconscious, be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.

Actions to Take During a Choke

  • Give up to five back slaps
  • Hold casualty from behind
  • Give up to five abdominal thrusts

Repeat entire sequence until obstruction clears.

Emergency First Aid Treatment for Choking Adult

Here are the step-by-step procedures to follow in Emergency First Aid Treatment for choking:

  1. Give Up To Five Back Slaps
  • Ask the casualty to cough, but do not waste time.
  • Bend the casualty forwards.
  • Give up to five sharp slaps between the shoulder blades with the flat of your hand.

If choking persists, go to step 2.

  1. Hold Casualty From Behind
  • Stand behind the casualty.
  • Put your arms around him; put one fist below his ribcage.
  1. Give Up To Five Abdominal Thrusts
  • Link your hands and pull sharply inwards and upwards

Repeat Entire Sequence

  • Continue alternating back slaps and abdominal thrusts until the obstruction clears.

Choking (Child)

Recognition and Symptoms of a Choking Child

  • Difficulty in speaking and breathing
  • Flushed face and neck
  • Distress

Later:

  • Grey-blue skin

Precautions to Take During a Choke

  • Do not feel blindly down the throat.
  • If the child becomes unconscious, be ready to resuscitate if necessary.

Actions to Take During a Choke

  • Give up to five back slaps
  • Give up to five chest thrusts
  • Continue to Give up to five back slaps
  • Give up to five abdominal thrusts
  • Call ambulance and repeat entire sequence.

Emergency First Aid Treatment for Choking Child

  1. Give Up To Five Back Slaps
  • Bend the child forwards.
  • Give up to five sharp slaps between his shoulders with one hand.
  • Check his mouth: hook out any obvious obstruction.
  1. Give Up To Five Chest Thrusts
  • If back slaps fail, stand or kneel behind the child.
  • Make a fist and place it against his lower breastbone.
  • Grasp it with your other hand and press into the chest with a sharp inward thrust up to five times, at a rate of about one every three seconds.
  1. Give Up To Five Back Slaps
  • Check his mouth.
  • If choking persists, give up to five back slaps.
  • Check his mouth again, and go to step 4 if needed.
  1. Give Up To Five Abdominal Thrusts
  • Make a fist and place it against the child’s central upper abdomen.
  • Grasp your fist with your other hand and press with a sharp upward thrust up to five times.
  • Check his mouth, and proceed to step 5 if needed.
  1. Dial 999 For Ambulance
  • Repeat the cycle of back slaps and chest and abdominal thrusts until help arrives.

Choking (Baby)

Recognition and Symptoms of a Choking Child

  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Flushed face and neck
  • Strange noises or no sound

Later:

  • Grey-blue skin

Precautions to Take During Choking

  • Do not feel blindly down the throat.
  • Do not use abdominal thrusts on a baby.
  • If at any stage the obstruction clears, or the baby becomes unconscious, begin resuscitation.

Actions to Take During  a Choke

  • Give up to five back slaps
  • Check baby’s mouth
  • Give up to five chest thrusts
  • Repeat entire sequence and call ambulance.

Emergency First Aid Treatment for Choking Baby

  1. Give Up To Five Back Slaps
  • Lay the baby face down along your forearm, keeping his head low.
  • Give up to five sharp slaps on his back.
  • Turn the baby face up on your arm or lap.
  1. Check Baby’s Mouth
  • Use one finger to remove any obvious obstruction, without touching the baby’s throat.
  • If back slaps have failed, proceed to next step.
  1. Give Up To Five Chest Thrusts
  • Place two fingertips on the lower half of the baby’s breastbone one finger’s breadth below the nipples.
  • Give up to five sharp thrusts into the chest.
  • Check his mouth again.
  1. Repeat Entire Sequence
  • Repeat steps 1-3 three times.
  • If the obstruction has not cleared, take the baby with you to Dial 999 for ambulance.
  • Repeat steps 1-3 until help arrives.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Eye injury

Recognition

  • Intense pain in the affected eye.

There may also be:

  • A visible wound
  • A bloodshot eye if wound is not visible.
  • Partial or total loss of vision.
  • Leakage of blood or clear fluid from the injured eye.

Precautions

  • Do not touch the eye or any contact lens, or allow the casualty to rub the eye.
  • If it will take some time to obtain medical aid, bandage an eye pad in place over the injured eye.

Actions

  • Support casualty’s head
  • Give eye dressing to casualty
  • Take or send casualty to hospital
  1. Support Casualty’s Head
  • Lay casualty on her back, holding her head on your knees to keep it as still as possible.
  • Tell the casualty to keep her “good” eye still, as movement of the uninjured eye may damage the injured eye further.
  1. Give Eye Dressing to Casualty
  • Give the casualty a sterile dressing or clean pad, and ask her to hold it over the injured eye and to keep her uninjured eye closed.
  1. Take or Send Casualty to Hospital
  • Call an ambulance if you cannot transport the casualty down.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Unc0nsciousness

Precautions

  • Do not leave the casualty alone, except to call an ambulance.
  • Do not give casualty anything by mouth.
  • If the casualty does not regain full consciousness in three minutes, Dial 999 for an ambulance. Monitor and record breathing, pulse and response every ten minutes.
  • If necessary, be prepared to resuscitate.

Actions

  • Assess casualty’s response
  • Open airway; check breathing and pulse
  • Examine and treat casualty
  • Place casualty in recovery position
  • Call ambulance
  1. Assess Casualty’s Response
  • Gently shake the casualty’s shoulders.
  • Question the casualty, speaking loudly and clearly.
  • Record her level of response.
  1. Open Airway; Check Breathing and Pulse
  • Place two fingers under the casualty’s chin and one hand on her forehead: tilt her head back.
  • Check breathing and pulse.
  1. Examine and Treat Casualty
  • Examine the casualty.
  • Control bleeding
  • Support suspected fractures
  • Treat any other life-threatening conditions.
  1. Place Casualty in Recovery Position
  • Take extra care if you suspect spinal injury.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Head Injury

Precautions

  • If possible, wear gloves to protect against infection.
  • Place her in the recovery position, if the casualty becomes unconscious, and be ready to resuscitate if necessary.
  • Dial 999 for an ambulance, if the casualty is unconscious for three minutes.
  • If the bleeding does not stop, reapply pressure on the wound, and add another pad on top of the first.

Action

  • Control bleeding
  • Secure dressing with bandage
  • Lay casualty down
  • Take or send casualty to hospital
  1. Control Bleeding
  • Replace any displaced skin flaps.
  • Place a sterile dressing or clean pad over the wound and apply firm, direct pressure.
  1. Secure Dressing with Bandage
  • Secure the dressing over the wound with a roller bandage.
  1. Lay Casualty Down
  • Ensure her head and shoulders are slightly raised.
  • Make sure that she is comfortable.
  1. Take or Send Casualty to Hospital
  • Call an ambulance if you cannot transport the casualty lying down.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Convulsion: Adult

Recognitions

  • Unconsciousness
  • Rigidity
  • Breathing may cease
  • Convulsive movements
  • Muscles relax
  • Casualty regains consciousness

Precautions

  • Do not use force to restrain the casualty.
  • If the casualty is unconscious for more than ten minutes, is having repeated fits, or it is her first fit, Dial 999 for an ambulance. Note the time and duration of the fit.

Action

  • Support Casualty
  • Protect casualty
  • Loosen casualty’s clothing
  • Place casualty in recovery position
  1. Support Casualty
  • Try to ease her fall.
  • Talk to her calmly and reassuringly
  1. Protect Casualty
  • Clear away any surrounding objects to prevent injury to the casualty.
  • Ask bystanders to keep clear.
  1. Loosen Casualty’s Clothing
  • Undo tight clothing around the casualty’s neck
  • Protect the casualty’s head, if possible, with soft material, until the convulsions cease.
  1. Place Casualty in Recovery Position
  • Place the casualty in the recovery position.
  • Stay until the casualty is fully recovered.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for CONVULSIONS: CHILD

Recognition

  • Fever
  • Violent muscle twitching

There may be:

  • Twitching of the face
  • Breath-holding
  • Drooling at the mouth
  • Loss of, or impaired, consciousness.

Action 

  • Cool child
  • Protect child from injury
  • Sponge with tepid water
  • Put child in recovery position
  • Call ambulance
  1. Cool Child
  • Remove her clothing.
  • Ensure a good supply of cool air.
  1. Protect Child From Injury
  • Clear away any nearby objects.
  • Surround the child with soft padding.
  1. Sponge with Tepid Water
  • Start at her head and work down.
  1. Put Child in Recovery Position
  • Once the convulsions have ceased, put the child in the recovery position.
  • Keep her head tilted well back.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Broken Bones

PRECAUTIONS

  • Do not attempt to bandage if medical assistance is on its way.
  • Don’t attempt to move the injured limb unnecessarily.
  • Do not allow a casualty with a suspected fracture to have anything to eat or drink.

ACTION

  • Steady and support injured part.
  • Protect injury with padding
  • Take or send casualty to hospital.
  1. Steady and Support Injured Part
  • Help the casualty to support the affected part above and below the injury in the most comfortable position.
  1. Protect Injury with Padding
  • Place padding, such as towels or cushions, around the affected part, and support it in position.
  1. Take or Send Casualty to Hospital
  • Call for an ambulance if you are unable to transport the casualty to hospital.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Back Injury

Recognition

  • Pain in neck or back
  • A step or twist in curve of spine
  • Tenderness to touch on spine

There may be:

  • Loss of control over movement of limbs
  • Loss of, or abnormal, sensation
  • Difficulty in breathing.

Precautions

  • Do not movethe casualty unless she is in danger or she becomes unconscious.
  • If the casualty becomes unconscious, put her into recovery position while keeping the head and neck aligned with the spine. Be ready to resuscitate if necessary.

Action

  • Steady and support head
  • Support casualty’s neck
  • Call ambulance
  1. Steady and Support Head
  • Reassure casualty and tell her not to move.
  • Keep the head, neck and spine aligned by placing your hands over the casualty’s ears to hold her head still.
  1. Support Casualty’s Neck
  • If you suspect a neck or spinal injury, ask a helper to place rolled towels or other padding around the casualty’s neck and shoulders.
  • Keep holding her head throughout.
  1. Dial 999 For Ambulance
  • If possible, ask a helper to call an ambulance and to inform the controller that spinal injury is suspected.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for BURNS

PRECAUTIONS

  • Do not apply lotions, ointment, or fat to a burn, or touch the injured area or burst any blisters.
  • Do not remove anything sticking to the burn.
  • If the burn is to the face, do not cover it. Keep cooling with water until help arrives.
  • If the burn is large or deep, treat the casualty for shock. Dial 999 for an ambulance. Monitor and record breathing, pulse, and level of response every ten minutes.
  • If the burn is chemical, rinse for at least 20 minutes.

ACTION 

  • Cool burn
  • Remove any constructions
  • Cover burn
  • Take or send casualty to hospital
  1. Cool Burn
  • Make the casualty comfortable.
  • Pour cold liquid on injury for ten minutes.
  • While cooling the burn, watch for signs of difficulty in breathing. Be ready to resuscitate if needed.
  1. Remove Any Constructions
  • Carefully remove any clothing or jewelry from the affected area before the injury starts to swell.
  1. Cover Burn
  • Cover the burn and surrounding area with a sterile dressing, or a clean piece of material.
  • Reassure the casualty.
  1. Take or Send Casualty to Hospital
  • Call an ambulance if you cannot transport the casualty to hospital.
  • Record details of the casualty’s injuries and any possible hazards.

Burns: Action and Safety

PRECAUTIONS

Fires

  • Do not attempt to fight a fire unless it is safe and you have called the emergency services.
  • Don’t enter a burning building.
  • Do not enter a smoke or fume-filled room.

PRECAUTIONS

Clothing on Fire

  • Do not use flammable materials to try to smother flames.
  • Do not let the casualty run about or go outdoors.

PRECAUTIONS

Electrical Injuries

  • Do not go within 18 metres (20 yards) of live high-voltage electrical sources.

Precautions

Chemical Spills

  • Do not delay starting treatment by searching for antidote.
  • Never attempt to neutralize acid or alkali burns.
  1. FIRES
  • Dial 999 For the Emergency Services, and ask for the fire brigade.
  • Remove the casualty from danger, if it is safe to do so.
  1. Clothing on Fire
  • Either:
  • Stop, drop, wrap, and roll the casualty on the ground; or
  • Lay the casualty down, burning side upwards and douse him with water.
  1. Electrical Injuries
  • Stay clear of the casualty until:
  • You have switched off a domestic current; or
  • You have been officially informed that a high-voltage current has been switched off and isolated.
  1. Chemical Spills
  • Protect yourself from corrosive chemicals.
  • Make sure that any contaminated rinsing water drains away of the dangers of toxic fumes.
  • Seal the chemical container, if possible; ventilate the area.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for Swallowed Poisons

PRECAUTIONS

  • Do not attempt to induce vomiting.
  • If there is vomit in the mouth, lay the casualty on his side to allow any vomit to drain away safely.
  • If the casualty stops breathing, be prepared to resuscitate. When giving mouth-to-mouth ventilation, use a face shield to protect yourself.
  • If the casualty is conscious and the lips are burned, give the casualty frequent sips of cold water or milk, and seek medical advice immediately.

ACTION 

  • Check airway and breathing
  • Place casualty in recovery position
  • Call ambulance

FOR AN UNCONSCIOUS CASUALTY

  1. Check Airway and Breathing
  • Check there is no foreign matter in the mouth.
  • Place two fingers under the casualty’s chin and one hand on his forehead, and tilt the head well back.
  • Check the airway and check breathing.
  1. Place Casualty in Recovery Position
  • Ensure the airway remains open.
  1. Dial 999 For Ambulance
  • Give as much information as possible about the swallowed poisons.
  • Monitor and record breathing, pulse, and level of response every ten minutes until help arrive.

Basic Emergency First Aid Treatment Guide for ALLERGIC REACTIONS

RECOGNITION

  • Anxiety
  • Red, blotchy skin
  • Swelling of face and neck
  • Puffiness around eyes
  • Impaired breathing
  • Rapid pulse

PRECAUTIONS

  • Check for an Epipen or Syringe of adrenaline. If necessary, assist the casualty to use it. It can save his life when given promptly.
  • If the casualty becomes unconscious, place him in the recovery position, and be ready to resuscitate, if necessary.

ACTION

  • Call ambulance
  • Make casualty comfortable
  • Monitor casualty

FOR AN UNCONSCIOUS CASUALTY

  1. Dial 999 For Ambulance
  • Pass on as much information about the cause of the allergy as possible.
  1. Make Casualty Comfortable
  • A sitting position should help to relief any breathing difficulties.
  1. Monitor Casualty
  • Monitor and record breathing, pulse, and level of response every ten minutes until help arrive.

Save

Save

Save

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